The Rohingya Crisis in the Context of Sino-Indian Geopolitical Competition in Myanmar
Lecturer, Department of Maritime Security and Strategic Studies, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Maritime University, Bangladesh. He can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Md. Ataur Rahman Talukder
Lecturer, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Security and Strategic Studies, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh. He can be reached at email@example.com.Abstract
The Rohingya people of Myanmar have been trapped in a protracted refugee situation for more than fifty years. Several complicated underlying factors have historically hindered a long-term resolution of the refugee issue. The refugee problem has political, religious, ethnic, and geo-strategic dimensions. This paper focuses on the regional geopolitical aspect of the Rohingya refugee crisis. Drawing upon secondary literature, the paper seeks to analyse the role of India and China in Myanmar. By exploring the nature of Sino-Indian geopolitical competition in Myanmar, the paper has tried to understand the contribution of such competition in the prolongation of the crisis.
Keywords: Rohingya Crisis, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sino-Indian Geopolitical Competition.
References:Ambarkhane, S. and Gathia, S.V. (2022). Over a year later, Myanmar’s military coup threaens India’s national security. United States Institute of Peace. Available at: https://www.usip.org/publications/2022/05/over-year-later-myanmarsmilitary-coup-threatens-indias-national-security Ashraf, A. S. M. (2022). Spying and Hidden Partnerships in the Bangladesh’s Case. In Global-Local Tradeoffs, Order-Disorder Consequences (pp. 111-148). Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. Aung, H. L. (2017). FDI could exceed MIC’s target in 2017-18, but still lower than previous years’. Retrieved from https://www.mmtimes.com/business/26883- fdi-could-exceed-mic-s-target-in-2017-18-but-still-lower-than-previousyears.html Ayako, S. (2014). The Formation of the Concept of Myanmar Muslims as Indigenous Citizens: Their History and Current Situation. The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies. No.32. Bearak, M. (2017). Bangladesh is now home to almost 1 million Rohingya refugees. The Washington Post. Bhattacharya, P. (2018). India’s evolving stand on Rohingya problem. The Daily Star. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/opinion/human-rights/indiasevolving-stand-rohingya-problem-1576237 Cheesman, N. (2017). How in Myanmar “National Races” Came to Surpass Citizenship and Exclude Rohingya, Journal of Contemporary Asia. 47:3, pp. 461-483, DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2017.1297 Dwivedi, D. (2018). China-Myanmar relation trends and its implications for India. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development. Volume 3, Issue 1. pp. 48-53. Egreteau, R. (2008). India and China Vying for Influence in Burma – A New Assessment. India Review. 7:1. pp. 38-72, DOI: 10.1080/14736480801901170 Ganesan, N. (2011). Myanmar–China relations: interlocking interests but independent output. Japanese Journal of Political Science. 12(1). pp. 95-111. Harshe, R. (2007). India’s foreign policy under Nehru and its contemporary relevance. Contemporary perspectives. 1(1), pp. 33-45. Hill, C. (2013). Myanmar: sectarian violence in Rakhine-issues, humanitarian consequences, and regional responses. Analysis and Policy Observatory (APO). Parliamentary Library Australia. Holliday, I. (2014). Addressing Myanmar’s Citizenship Crisis, Journal of Contemporary Asia. 44:3, pp. 404-421, DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2013.877957 Islam, S. (2017, October 16). Dragon meets elephant: China and India’s stakes in Myanmar. The Daily Star. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/ opinion/perspective/mayanmar-rohingya-refugee-crisis-dragon-meetselephant-myanmar-1475020 Kaplan, Y. (2017). China’s OBOR as a geo-functional institutionalist project. TalTech Journal of European Studies, 7(1), 7-23. Kobayashi, Y., & King, J. (2022). Myanmar’s strategy in the China–Myanmar Economic Corridor: a failure in hedging? International Affairs, 98(3), 1013- 1032. Kodaka, W., & Nitta, Y. (2017). New Myanmar oil pipeline bolsters China’s energy security. Nikkei Asia. Retrieved from https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/ International-Relations/New-Myanmar-oil-pipeline-bolsters-China-s-energysecurity2 Lee, R. (2021). Myanmar’s Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA). Perspectives on Terrorism, 15(6), 61-75. Lee, Y. (2017). China draws three-stage path for Myanmar. Bangladesh to resolve… Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-rohingya/chinadraws-three-stage-path-for-myanmar-bangladesh-to-resolve-rohingya-crisisidUSKBN1DK0AL Leider, J. P. (2014). Politics of integration and cultures of resistance: A study of Burma’s conquest and administration of Arakan (1785–1825). In Asian Expansions (pp. 184-213). Routledge. Mallick, A. H. (2020). Rohingya refugee repatriation from Bangladesh: a far cry from reality. Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs. 7(2), 202-226. Malik, J. (1994). Sino—Indian Rivalry in Myanmar: Implications for Regional Security. Contemporary Southeast Asia. 16(2), 137-156. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25798241 Nair, A. (2017). To counter OBOR, India and Japan propose Asia-Africa sea corridor. Indian Express. Retrieved from https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/ to-counter-obor-india-and-japan-propose-asia-africa-sea-corridor-4681749/ Nitta, Y. (2018). Myanmar cuts cost of China-funded port project by 80%. Nikkei Asia. Retrieved from https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Belt-and-Road/ Myanmar-cuts-cost-of-China-funded-port-project-by-80 Olney, J., and Ahmad, S. (2021). Beyond the Coup in Myanmar: The Views of Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.” Just Security. Retrieved from https:// www.justsecurity.org/76857/beyond-the-coup-in-myanmar-the-views-ofrohingya-refugees-in-bangladesh/. Panwar, N. (2009). India and China competing over Myanmar Energy resources. Working draft for BISA Conference 2009. pp.14-16 December 2009. University of Leicester, Leicester. Parameswaran, P. (2017 ). New Military Exercise Highlights India-Myanmar Defense Relations. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/11/ new-military-exercise-highlights-india-myanmar-defense-relations/ Parameswaran, P. (2018). What’s Behind the New India-Myanmar Naval Exercise? The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2018/03/whatsbehind-the-new-india-myanmar-naval-exercise/ Parnini, S. N., Othman, M. R., & Ghazali, A. S. (2013). The Rohingya refugee crisis and Bangladesh-Myanmar relations. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. 22(1), pp. 133-146. Paul, R. (2018, October 30). Bangladesh, Myanmar agree to begin Rohingya repatriation by…Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/ us-myanmar-rohingya/bangladesh-myanmar-agree-to-begin-rohingyarepatriation-by-mid-november-idUSKCN1N414Q Rahman, U. (2010). The Rohingya Refugee: A Security Dilemma for Bangladesh. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies. 8:2, pp. 233-239, DOI:10.1080/15562941003792135 Rahmatullah, M. (2006). Transport issues and integration in South Asia. Promoting Economic Cooperation in South Asia. p.174. Reid, P. (2018). Renaissance and Reticence in India’s North-South Connectivity Platform. Retrieved from https://idsa.in/idsacomments/renaissance-reticenceindia-north-south-connectivity-preid-301118 Rüland, A. (2017). Myanmar’s Rohingya problem in context. Institut für StrategiePolitik-Sicherheits-und Wirtschaftsberatung (ISPSW) Strategy Series. Safi, M. (2017). Myanmar treatment of Rohingya looks like’textbook ethnic cleansing’, says UN. The Guardian. Saikia, P. (2009). North-East India as a factor in India’s diplomatic engagement with Myanmar: issues and challenges. Strategic Analysis. 33(6), pp. 877-889. Saimum, R. (2020). The prospect of Belt and Road Initiative in the context of Bangladesh. China Report. 56(4), pp. 464-483. Selth, A. (1996). Burma and the strategic competition between China and India. The Journal of Strategic Studies. 19(2), pp. 213-230. Shihong. B (2016). New Developments in Japan? Myanmar Relations after the Thein Sein Administration came to Power. Myanmar: Reintegrating into the International Community. doi:10.1142/9789814759915_0009 Steinberg, D. I. & Fan, H. (2012). Modern China-Myanmar Relations: Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence. Monograph series. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies. ISSN: 9788-7769-40959 Ullah, A, A. (2011). Rohingya Refugees to Bangladesh: Historical Exclusions and Contemporary Marginalization. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 9:2, pp. 139-161, DOI: 10.1080/15562948.2011.567149 Wagner, D. (2014). Can China and India coexist in Myanmar? Retrieved from https:// www.mmtimes.com/opinion/9695-can-china-and-india-coexist-in-myanmar. html Ye, H. (2017). India’s Policy Regarding South Asia and Its Impact on China’s Pushing Forward of the Belt and Road Initiative. In Annual Report on the Development of the Indian Ocean Region (2016) (pp. 37-52). Springer, Singapore. Zhao, H. (2008). China and India: competing for good relations with Myanmar. The Journal of East Asian Affairs. 22(1), pp. 175-194. Retrieved from http:// www.jstor.org/stable/23257878 Zolberg, R.A. (1986) International Factors in the Formation of Refugee Movements. The International Migration Review. Vol. 20, No. 2, Special Issue: Refugees: Issues and Directions (Summer, 1986), pp.151-169. Zolberg, R.A. (1989) The Next Waves: Migration Theory for a Changing World. International Migration Review. Vol. 23, No. 3, Special Silver Anniversary Issue: International Migration an Assessment for the 90’s (Autumn, 1989), pp. 403-430.