Taming the Inflation Challenge: Bangladesh’s Path to Economic Resilience in 2024


Despite the severe economic challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, Bangladesh has shown stability and resilience. The country has successfully managed to deal with high inflation rates during these tough times. As we embark on a new year, the economic landscape of Bangladesh offers a beacon of optimism and hope for a brighter future. Despite grappling with the combined impact of pandemic-induced supply chain disruptions and geopolitical tensions, such as the Ukraine War, Bangladesh has demonstrated remarkable resilience in managing inflationary pressures.

Throughout 2022 and 2023, the world witnessed a surge in global inflation, driven by supply chain disruptions and heightened geopolitical uncertainties, notably in advanced economies like the USA and the European Union. In this challenging environment, Bangladesh stood strong, sustaining an annual inflation rate below double digits for an impressive 20 months. The nation’s ability to weather such global economic upheaval is a testament to its strategic economic policies and adaptive measures.

Figure: Bangladesh’s Inflation (January 2022-November 2023)

While facing similar challenges as other nations, Bangladesh’s approach to economic management has been distinctive. In contrast to the demand management policies, such as interest rate hikes, adopted by advanced economies, Bangladesh opted for fiscal expansion and private sector credit growth. The unique ‘6/9’ interest rate policy, maintaining lending rates at 9% amid a persistent 9% inflation rate, has drawn attention, raising concerns but also underscoring the country’s commitment to a nuanced and tailored economic strategy. The varying policy responses on the global stage emphasize the complexities of economic management during a shared crisis. Bangladesh’s ability to chart its course, considering domestic economic dynamics, highlights the importance of tailored strategies. As we look towards the future, Bangladesh’s economic trajectory instills confidence and serves as an example of effective resilience in the face of unprecedented challenges.

Bangladesh’s Economic Resilience: A Unique Achievement in Inflation Control through Strategic Policies and Proactive Measures

Bangladesh’s distinctive achievement in combating inflation lies in its remarkable ability to sustain economic stability over the past 20 months, avoiding a dramatic surge or entry into double-digit inflation territory. This success is attributed to the country’s prudent fiscal policies and effective governance, setting it apart in a global landscape marred by unprecedented spikes in inflation.

Throughout 2022 and 2023, the Bangladesh Bank (BB) proactively addressed rising inflation through a series of strategic measures. These included interest rate adjustments, a continuous and incremental policy evaluation approach, and a focus on effective management of letters of credit to preserve currency reserves and ensure exchange rate stability.

BB took significant steps to address issues within the banking sector, particularly non-performing loans and willful defaulters. Actions against defaulters and the promotion of a balanced credit flow aimed to reduce credit concentration among established clients and support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Recognizing the pivotal role of the government, BB underscored the importance of transparent political will, effective regulatory policies, and timely standard practices to confront structural, operational, and external factors contributing to high inflation. The central bank also explored strategies to tackle root causes, such as evaluating fuel prices in response to international crude oil trends for competitive domestic pricing. These initiatives collectively showcased a comprehensive and proactive approach to inflation control in Bangladesh.

The Turning Point

As we delve into the specifics, Bangladesh’s annual inflation rate eased to 9.49% in November 2023, marking a significant improvement from the previous month’s 9.93%. This represents a noteworthy seven-month low, indicative of the nation’s commitment to navigating inflation challenges. Examining specific sectors, the prices for food, non-alcoholic beverages, furnishings, and transportation showed encouraging signs of moderation.

Economic Experts Optimistic About Bangladesh’s Inflation Trends in 2024

MasterCard Economics Institute (MEI)

According to the MasterCard Economics Institute (MEI), Bangladesh’s economy is set for a positive turn in 2024. They predict a significant drop in consumer price inflation to 7.3%, down from the government’s 9.42% average in November 2023. The institute also anticipates a rise in the country’s real GDP to 6.3% year-on-year. MEI highlights the potential for increased consumer spending in the Asia Pacific region, including Bangladesh, particularly on discretionary items.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Despite recent economic challenges, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) maintains a positive outlook for Bangladesh. The IMF’s revised GDP growth projection of 6% for fiscal 2023-24 reflects a cautious yet adaptable stance. Consumer prices are expected to decrease to 7.2%, a positive trend compared to the 9.7% rise in the previous fiscal year. The global outlook remains optimistic, with a 3% growth forecast for world real GDP in 2023. The IMF’s nuanced perspective recognizes Bangladesh’s economic resilience and its potential for sustainable growth amid challenges.

United Nations (UN)

In its “World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) 2024” report, the United Nations (UN) offers a comprehensive view of Bangladesh’s economic future. The UN predicts a notable decrease in Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) from 9.6% to 6.8%. While acknowledging a slowdown in real GDP growth to 5.6% in 2024, the UN attributes this to softened domestic demand, stabilized international commodity prices, and reduced local currency depreciations. The report maintains an optimistic outlook, predicting a further decrease in inflation to 5.5% by 2025. The UN emphasizes a holistic understanding of the economic landscape, considering factors affecting both inflation and GDP growth.

New Government, New Hope

With the recent formation of a new government in the 2024 elections, Bangladesh is infused with fresh perspectives and policy directions. As the country enters 2024, the vision for economic betterment under the new government becomes a source of hope and optimism. The nation’s ability to maintain economic stability during turbulent times provides a solid foundation for the government to formulate policies aimed at fostering sustainable growth, attracting investments, and enhancing overall economic resilience. The collective hope is that the New Year will usher in transformative measures, propelling Bangladesh into a realm of sustained economic growth and prosperity.

Immediate Policy Measures to Control Inflation

Monetary Policy Adjustments The central bank should consider implementing effective monetary policy measures to control inflation. This may involve adjusting interest rates to influence spending and investment, ensuring careful calibration to avoid negative impacts on essential sectors.

Supply-Side Reforms Addressing the root causes of inflation, particularly in food prices, requires a focus on supply-side reforms. Improving agricultural productivity, storage facilities, and distribution networks can ensure a stable supply of essential goods, contributing to long-term stability in food prices.

Exchange Rate Management Ensuring a stable and market-driven exchange rate is crucial for controlling inflation. Policies that promote transparency and reduce multiple exchange rates can help restore confidence in the foreign exchange market.

Structural Reforms for Economic Governance

Institutional Strengthening Prioritizing reforms to enhance the efficiency of key institutions such as the National Board of Revenue, the Bangladesh Bank, Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Anti-Corruption Commission. Streamlining processes, improving transparency, and investing in training and technology are essential.

Financial Sector Cleanup Addressing challenges in the banking sector, especially non-performing loans, requires a comprehensive approach. Stricter regulations, enhanced supervision, and accountability for financial wrongdoings are crucial steps for restoring confidence in the banking sector.

Fiscal Discipline and Inclusive Growth

Revenue Collection Targets Given the shortfall in revenue collection, the government should set realistic and achievable targets. Strengthening tax administration and broadening the tax base can contribute to increased revenue without burdening a specific segment of the population.

Inclusive Policy Initiatives To address inequality, policymakers should focus on policies promoting broad-based and inclusive growth. Targeted social welfare programs, education and skill development initiatives, and measures ensuring equitable access to economic opportunities can contribute to long-term economic stability.

To summarize, Bangladesh’s economic resilience amid global challenges, notably in managing inflation, is evident in its strategic policies and proactive measures. The nation’s ability to sustain stability, showcased by a 20-month period with an annual inflation rate below double digits, reflects its nuanced economic approach. As the country enters 2024 with a new government, there is optimism for transformative measures to foster sustainable growth. Economic experts, including the MasterCard Economics Institute, the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations, anticipate positive trends, predicting a significant drop in consumer price inflation and a rise in real GDP. The focus on immediate policy measures, structural reforms, and inclusive growth initiatives further positions Bangladesh on a trajectory of economic stability and prosperity.

– S. M. Saifee Islam is a Research Associate at the KRF Center for Bangladesh and Global Affairs (CBGA).

[Read Full Briefs as a Pdf]