Genesis of Terrorism in Somalia: Assessing the Possibilities of Bringing an End to Terrorism in the Country


Somalia faces a severe issue with terrorism. For decades, the country has been plagued by violence and instability, and terrorist organizations such as al-Shabaab have carried out numerous attacks there. These attacks frequently target civilians and government institutions, and they have resulted in significant death and destruction. Individuals must maintain vigilance and avoid known attack hotspots in Somalia, as the country’s political climate remains unstable. Somalia’s location in the Horn of Africa, coupled with its weak governance and lack of effective security forces, make it a prime target for terrorist organizations. The country’s porous borders and ungoverned areas have also hampered its ability to combat terrorism effectively. In consequence, Somalia has become a regional epicenter for terrorist activity. Unfortunately, terrorist attacks occur frequently in Somalia.


Somalia’s history of terrorism and political instability is extensive. For decades, the country has been racked by bloodshed and war, and terrorist organizations have played a large role in this instability. Al-Shabaab, which is affiliated with al-Qaida, is one of the most active terrorist groups in Somalia. Al-Shabaab originated as a resistance movement against the Somali government and foreign forces in the nation, but has since evolved into a significant terrorist organization. Numerous attacks, including suicide bombs and other types of violence, have been carried out by the organization in Somalia. In addition to al-Shabaab, other terrorist organizations are active in Somalia. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), which has claimed responsibility for multiple attacks in the country, is among these groups. Somalia has also been the target of attacks by a number of smaller, regional extremist groups.

Somalia’s terrorism has many and multiple causes. For many years, Somalia has been plagued by political instability and inadequate government, and this void has allowed terrorist groups to flourish. The absence of a strong central government has also made it harder for the administration to confront terrorism effectively. Poverty and lack of access to education are also factors that contribute to the terrorist problem in Somalia. Numerous young Somalis are attracted to terrorist groups because they provide a sense of purpose and affiliation, as well as financial support. In Somalia, the effects of terrorism have been terrible. Terrorist group attacks have resulted in considerable loss of life and enormous devastation. In addition to displacing many individuals from their homes, the violence has devastated the country’s economy and social fabric.

Combating terrorism in Somalia is a difficult and complex endeavor. The government and international community have collaborated to address the underlying causes of terrorism in the country, including governance, poverty, and education access. Nonetheless, the situation in Somalia remains precarious, and terrorism remains a serious concern.

Frequency of Events

In recent years, terrorist strikes have become a common occurrence in Somalia. Decades of bloodshed and instability have afflicted Somalia, and terrorist organizations such as al-Shabaab have carried out countless attacks in the country. These attacks frequently target citizens and government institutions and have resulted in substantial loss of life and property. Several noteworthy terrorist attacks occurred in Somalia in 2021, including a suicide bombing at a checkpoint in Mogadishu in February that killed at least 15 people and a suicide bombing at a market in Baidoa in April that killed 10 people. It is essential for individuals to maintain vigilance and avoid known attack hotspots since the situation in Somalia continues to be dangerous.

There has been a series of events in the ongoing year as well. On October 23, 2022, an assault occurred at the Tawakal Hotel in the city of Kismayo. There were 13 reported fatalities and 47 reported injuries. On August 19, 2022, an incident occurred at the Hayat Hotel in the heart of Mogadishu. There were reportedly 21 fatalities and 117 injuries. The Pescatore Seafood Restaurant in south Mogadishu was the target of a bombing on 22 April 2022. There were reportedly 8 fatalities and 27 injuries. Also on 19 February 2022, there was a bombing at the Beledweyne restaurant Hassan Dhiif. There were reportedly 18 fatalities and 30 injuries.

On 29 October 2022, 121 people were murdered and over 300 were injured in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, due to a double vehicle bombing. President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud accused al-Shabaab, a Sunni extremist group, of committing the attacks, which they admitted. The bombing is the bloodiest attack in Somalia since the Mogadishu bombings on 14 October 2017 at the same intersection. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for the incident on 1 November, stating that the ministry of education was a “enemy base” supported by non-Muslim states. The group assaulted because they claimed that Somali youngsters were “educated from a Christian-centered curriculum.”

– Sharar Mahbub Dhrubo serves as a Research Intern at the KRF Center for Bangladesh and Global Affairs (CBGA). He has worked in the field of Model United Nations, Youth Development, Creative Works and Project Management.

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